Trelawny is located in the northwestern part of the island, with Saint Ann to the east, Saint James to the west, and Saint Elizabeth and Manchester to the south. The opening ceremony for the ICC Cricket World Cup 2007 was held in this parish. Its capital is Falmouth, which was named after the birthplace of Jamaica's governor Sir William Trelawny, (Falmouth, Britain) and is noted for being one of the Caribbean’s best-preserved historic towns.
Trelawny was established in 1770 from parts of Saint James and Saint Ann and was named for the Governor of Jamaica at the time, Sir William Trelawny, who died in Jamaica in 1772. The first capital was Martha Brae. The parish covers about 338 square miles, making it the fifth largest on the island. Trelawny has a population of 74,000. Some of the major towns in the parish are Clarks Town, Stewart Town, Duncans, Wakefield, Jackson Town, Ulster Spring, Wait-a-Bit and Albert Town.
Much of Trelawny is flat with wide plains such as Queen of Spain’s Valley and Windsor. The southern section of the parish is part of the Cockpit Country and is uninhabitable. This makes it a natural reserve for plants and animal life. Most of Jamaica’s 27 bird species are found there and sometimes the giant swallowtail butterfly, the largest butterfly in the western hemisphere. Covered in limestone, there are cockpits, sinkholes, caves and underground passages.
Windsor Cave is one of the largest and the roar of the Martha Brae River can be heard there during rainy season as it flows underground. Carnabi Cave is known for its phosphate deposits. There are caves near Pantrepant where Arawak/Taino wall carvings can be found. The main rivers in Trelawny are the Martha Brae, Rio Bueno, Cane and Quashie.
Trelawny is best known for its sugar plantations and sugar factories. It allegedly had more sugar plantations than any other parish so they needed a seacoast town to export sugar. Lands were bought from Edward Moulton Barrett (the father of the poetess Elizabeth Barrett Browning) and Barrett Town became one of the best laid out towns in Jamaica. It was renamed Falmouth and the planters erected luxurious townhouses. Falmouth became a thriving seaport and social center and is a historic and architectural treasure.
The largest group of Maroons, descendants of the slaves left in the island by the Spaniards, lived in the southern section of the parish in the Cockpit Country. Their chief town was Trelawny Town. A treaty between the Maroons and the English in 1739 gave the Maroons their freedom and land and effectively stopped their raids on the plantations. In 1795 the second Maroon uprising led to over 600 Maroons being exiled to Nova Scotia in Canada and later to Sierra Leone in Africa in 1800. Trelawny Town was destroyed in retaliation.
Rum and sugar are Trelawny's principal products. Other crops include bananas, yams, strawberries, vegetables, pimento, coffee, ginger, and coconut. Trelawny also has a sizeable fishing industry with its 10 beaches. There are 25 factories in the parish. These produce sugar, rum, and apparel, among other things. One of the few remaining sugar factories in Jamaica is in Trelawny — Trelawny Sugar, formerly Long Pond Sugar Factory. Tourism in the parish is still growing. A new $180 million port was built to accommodate the newest and largest class of cruise ships, the Oasis Class. The port opened in early 2011 to great fanfare.
Notable people born in Trelawny include six of Jamaica’s track and field athletes: three-time Olympic Gold Medalist and world record holder in the 100 meters, 200 meters and 4x100 meter relay (with his teammates) Usain Bolt OJ, Veronica Campbell-Brown, Marvin Anderson, Omar Brown, Michael Frater and Ben Johnson. Reggae artist Ky-Mani Marley, son of Bob Marley, was born in Falmouth, and Keith Anthony "Anthony B" Blair was born in Clarks Town.
Related articles from around the Web: